The end of the American Civil War saw a quick and vicious embrace of segregation in the south. One of many horrifying implications of this reality was that non-whites were often denied access to even basic medical care, as the best (and sometimes the only) medical facilities were “white-only.” In response to this reality, Howard University opened its medical school in 1868 Minority doctors and nurses to train black physicians, and Meharry Medical College, which began to function in 1876, followed suit. In 1869, three of the Howard Faculty members were denied membership in the American Medical Association’s local branch in Washington DC. Their continual attempts through 1884 were unsucessful; finally, in 1884, an all-black medical society, the National Medical Association, was formed.

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